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英文標準問題精講

『英文標準問題精講』を極めよう! 番外編#4 「強調と倒置」の解説

番外編#4では、『英文標準問題精講』初期10日間の#31~50までに登場した文法のうち、高校の授業や塾などでは、あまり詳しく解説されることのない文法について、まとめて解説をしていきます。

「強調」について

英語で、文法的にある単語や句を強調する方法はいくつかあり、強調する品詞によって異なり、次のようなルールが適用されます。

強調される語が…

①「名詞(句)」(主語または目的語)の場合  形式主語it + that節

②「副詞(句・節)」の場合  形式主語it + that節

③「動詞」の場合  助動詞do, did

④「否定」の副詞の場合  否定語 + 助動詞(be動詞) + 主語

①と②は、強調したい語句をIt is ~と文頭に無理やりもってくる最も単純な強調の方法です。代名詞itを用い、その単語または句を文頭に持ってきて、残りを、元の文からそれを取り除いたthat節として書き足します。

ex) He got the book at the bookstore.

Heを強調 → It was he that got the book at the bookstore.

the bookを強調 → It was the book that he got at the bookstore.

at the bookstoreを強調 → It was at the bookstore that he got the book.

③は、一般動詞の現在形や過去形がある場合に動詞の前に、助動詞のdoまたはdidを置き、助動詞の後ろの動詞は原形になるというものです。

 He did get the book at the bookstore.

動詞を強調するので、行為や動作を強調して言いたい場合に使われ、日常会話などでも使われる表現です。

④は、hardly, rarely, seldom, scarcely, no sooner, never, neither, norなど、「否定」の意味を含んだ副詞(句)を文頭に置くことで、残りの文の形が「疑問文」の語順と同じになり、助動詞やbe動詞と主語(S)が倒置されるものです。

ex) He hardly said his opinion at the meeting.

 Hardly did he say his opinion at the meeting.

また、文法以外では、文字だと、Bold体で太線に、Italic体で斜め文字にされている語句や、quotation mark(” ”)で囲むことで強調する場合があります。Bold体の場合は固有名詞や特殊な用語などに使われ、Italic体は書籍や論文、映画などのタイトルなどに使われ、quoteは造語や既存の語句に新たな意味を付け加えられている場合、文字通り(literally)その言葉を意味して意図的にその言葉を使っている場合などで使われ、いずれも、語句を「強調」する場合に用いられます。

最後に、会話などでは、語順を変えるのではなく、アクセントやイントネーションの位置を変えることで、その語句を強調する場合ばあります。

ex) I can do that.

I can do that. → 他の人ではなく、「私」こそが、と強調したい場合

I can do that. → 私がそれを”できる”ことを強調したい場合

I can do that. → 私がそれを”する”ことができることを強調したい場合

I can do that. → 他のものではなく、「それ」ができることを強調したい場合

通常は、Iまたはdoにアクセントが置かれる場合が多いと思います。また、I can do that.とI can’t do thatは、アクセントの位置で聞き分けることもできるかもしれません。後者の場合は、「否定」していることを伝えたいので、can’tにアクセントが置かれます。リスニングなどでは、聞き分けるポイントになるものなので、アクセントやイントネーションなども、普段から意識的に聴いてみるとよいかもしれません。

「倒置」について

倒置が起こる場合も、いくつかのパターンがあるので、チェックしておきましょう。

①「否定」の副詞が文頭で強調される場合  否定語 + 助動詞(be動詞) + 主語

②if節のifが省略された場合  助動詞(be動詞) + 主語(S) ~

③「補語(C)」が文頭に置かれる場合  補語 + be動詞 + 主語(S)

④「方向や場所を表す副詞(句)」が文頭に置かれる場合  副詞 + 動詞(V) + 主語(S)

①と②は、文の形が疑問文と同じ様に「倒置」されます。特に②の場合は、「倒置」が起きてる節が副詞節であり、他に主節があることを確認しましょう。

③は、「補語(C)」が含まれている文型は、第2文型(SVC)と第5文型(SVOC)で、第2文型の場合のみ、補語が文頭に置かれ強調されることで、「倒置」が起こります。第5文型の場合も補語を文頭に置き、強調することがありますが、語順の変化はありません。

They were happy to live in such a great country.  Happy were they to live in such a great country.

They think themselves happy.  Happy  they think themselves.

④は、「場所や方向を表す副詞(句)」が文頭で強調された場合に、主語(S)と動詞(V)の語順がそのまま倒置されます。

He went up the stairs.  Up went he the stairs.

この他にも、会話文や感嘆文、Beが文頭に置かれた譲歩構文また、古い英語だと、「the 比較級 S V, the 比較級 S V」の後半の部分、「比較」のthan節などでも倒置が起こりますが、今回解説したルールが見分けられれば、「倒置」が起こっていることが見分けられ、適切に解釈できるようになります。

倒置が起こっていても、直訳や試験の答案などでの日本語訳はほとんど影響を受けないので、複雑な文の場合は、いったん通常の語順になおして訳すことで、曖昧な訳にならずに、訳すことができるかもしれません。

『英文標準問題精講』を極めよう! 初期10日間 解説 #50

As of all other good things, one can have too much even of reading.  Indulged in to excess, reading becomes a vice ― a vice all the more dangerous for not being generally recognized as such.  Yet excessive reading is the only form of self-indulgence which fails to get the blame it deserves.  The fact is surprising; for it is obvious to anyone who candidly observes himself and other people that excessive reading can devour a man’s time, dissipate his energies, vitiate his thinking and distract his attention from reality.

構造分析

①(As of all other good things), [one] can have [too much (even) of reading].  ②(Indulged / (in to excess)), [reading] becomes [a vice] (― [a vice ((all the more) dangerous / (for (not) being (generally) recognized / (as such)))]).  ③(Yet [excessive reading] is [the only form of self-indulgence (which fails / (to get the blame(it deserves)))]).  ④[The fact] is [surprising]; (for it is [obvious] / (to anyone who (candidly) observes [himself and other people] [that [excessive reading] can devour [a man’s time], dissipate [his energies], vitiate [his thinking] and distract [his attention] / (from reality))]).

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『英文標準問題精講』を極めよう! 初期10日間 解説 #49

His talents went into his hobbies, which were book-collecting and gardening; for his career he had accepted a routine occupation and was quite content to be a bank manager in that town.  His wife became irritated at his lack of enterprise, and was a little jealous and impatient of his bobbies, which enclosed him in himself, as hobbies do, and, so she thought, got him nowhere.

構造分析

①[His talents went / (into his hobbies), (which were [book-collecting] and [gardening]); (for his career) / he had accepted [a routine occupation] and was [quite content] / (to be [a bank manager]) / (in that town).  ②His wife became [irritated] / (at his lack of enterprise), and was [a little jealous and impatient of his hobbies], (which enclosed [him] / (in himself)), / (as hobbies do, and, (so she thought), got [him] [nowhere]).

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『英文標準問題精講』を極めよう! 初期10日間 解説 #48

The commonest form of forgetfulness, I suppose, occurs in the matter of posting letters.  So common is it that I am always reluctant to trust a departing visitor to post an important letter.  So little do I rely on his memory that I put him on his oath before handing the letter to him. As for myself, anyone who asks me to post a letter is a poor judge of character.  Even if I carry the letter in my hand I am always past the first pillar-box before I remember that I ought to have posted it.

構造分析

①[The commonest form of forgetfulness], (I suppose), occurs / (in the matter of posting letters).  ②[So common] is [it] [that I am (always) reluctant / (to trust a departing visitor / (to post an important letter))].  ③(So little) do [I] rely / (on his memory) / (that I put [him] / (on his oath) / (before handing [the letter] / (to him)))].  ④(As for myself), [anyone (who asks [me] [to post a letter])] is [a poor judge of character].  ⑤(Even if I carry [the letter] / (in my hand)) / I am (always) past [the first pillar-box] / (before I remember [that I ought to have posted it]).

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『英文標準問題精講』を極めよう! 初期10日間 解説 #47

The European Traveller in America ― at least if I may judge by myself ― is struck by two peculiarities: first the extreme similarity of outlook in all parts of the United States, and secondly the passionate desire of each locality to prove that it is peculiar and different from every other.  The second of these is, of course, caused by the first.  Every place wishes to have a reason for local pride, and therefore cherishes whatever is distinctive in the way of geography or history or tradition.  The greater the uniformity that in fact exists, the more eager becomes the search for differences that may mitigate it.

構造分析

①[The European Traveller / (in America)] (― (at least) if I may judge / (by myself) ―) is [struck] / (by two peculiarities): ②[(first) the extreme similarity of outlook / (in all parts of the United States)], and [(secondly) the passionate desire of each locality / (to prove that it is peculiar and different / (from every other))].  ③[The second of these] is, (of course), [caused] / (by the first).  ④[Every place] wishes [to have [a reason] / (for local pride)], and (therefore) cherishes [whatever is distinctive / (in the way of geography or history or tradition)].  ⑤[The greater] [the uniformity that (in fact) exists], [the more eager] becomes [the search / (for differences (that may mitigate it))].

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『英文標準問題精講』を極めよう! 初期10日間 解説 #46

A young man wrote to me the other day lamenting his ignorance and requesting me to tell him what books to read and what to do in order to become learned and wise.  I sent him a civil answer and such advice as occurred to me.  But I confess that the more I thought of the matter the less assured I felt of my ability for the task.

構造分析

①[A young man] wrote / (to me) / (the other day) / (lamenting his ignorance) and (requesting [me] [to tell [him] [what books to read and what to do]] / (in order to become learned and wise)).  ②I sent [him] [a civil answer and such advice as occurred to me].  ③But I confess [that [the more] I thought of the matter [the less assured] I felt of my ability / (for the task)].

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『英文標準問題精講』を極めよう! 初期10日間 解説 #45

The more carefully nature has been studied, the more widely has order been found to prevail, while what seemed disorder has proved to be nothing but complexity; until, at present, no one is so foolish as to believe that there are any real accidents, in the sense of events which have no cause.

構造分析

①[(The more carefully) [nature] has been [studied]], [(the more widely) has [order] been [found] / (to prevail)], (while [what seemed disorder] has [proved] / (to be nothing but complexity); ②(until, (at present), [no one] is [(so) foolish] / as to believe [that (there) are [any real accidents], (in the sense of events (which have no cause))])).

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『英文標準問題精講』を極めよう! 初期10日間 解説 #44

The test of a great book is whether we want to read it only once or more than once.  Any really great book we want to read the second time even more than we wanted it the first time; and every additional time that we read it we find new meanings and new beauties in it.

構造分析

①[The test of a great book] is [whether we want / (to read it only once or more than once)].  ②[Any really great book] [we] want [to read] (the second time) / (even more than we wanted it the first time; and every additional time that we read it) / we find [new meanings] and [new beauties] / (in it).

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『英文標準問題精講』を極めよう! 初期10日間 解説 #43

When I go into a stranger’s library I wander round the book-shelves to learn what sort of a person the stranger is, and when he comes in I feel that I know the key to his mind and the range of his interests.  A house without books is a mindless and characterless house, no matter how rich the rugs and how elegant the furniture and ornaments.

構造分析

(When I go / (into a stranger’s library)) I wander (round the book-shelves) / (to learn [what sort of a person the stranger is]), and (when he comes (in)) I feel [that I know [the key (to his mind)] and [the range of his interests]].  ②[A house (without books)] is [a mindless and characterless house], (no matter [how rich the rugs] and [how elegant the furniture and ornaments]).

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『英文標準問題精講』を極めよう! 初期10日間 解説 #42

No household in the English-speaking world is properly furnished unless it contains a copy of the Holy Bible and of the works of William Shakespeare.  It is not necessary that these books should be read in maturer years, but they must be present as symbols of Religion and English Culture.

構造分析

①[No household / (in the English-speaking world)] is [(properly) furnished] / (unless it contains [a copy of the Holy Bible and of the works of William Shakespeare]).  ②It is not [necessary] [that these books should be read / (in maturer years)], but [they] must be [present] / (as symbols of Religion and English Culture).

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